It is not necessary to strain the words of the original in order to prove that these were oppressed people, and not exceptionable characters, as some have done. Similar associations exist in the same localities at the present day-a motley crew of desperate men from all parts of the country: some wild and marauding outlaws, others tolerated by the governments, and empowered to keep the desert tribes in check (see Robinson's 'Biblical Researches,' 2:, p. 200; Drew's 'Scripture Lands,' p. 121; Rogers' 'Domestic Life,' p., 179; Wolff, 'Missionary Labours and Researches,' p. 507). Some went to him in the first days of his exile, others after the massacre at the sanctuary at Nob, others later, and thus gradually 400 gathered round him. New International Version (NIV) "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". In debt — Hebrew, had a creditor; and who, having no means of meeting their obligations, were likely to be sold to their creditors. 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. "E.W. 2 Samuel 22: 1 – 51 Save the humble – oppose the proud 22 Then David spoke to the LORD the words of this song, on the day when the LORD had delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. They wanted a king to fight their battles. The *Israelites wanted a king to lead them. Then the ark is brought to Kirjath-Jearim where it remains for 20 years (1 Samuel 6; 1 Samuel 7:1-2). 14 But thanks be to God, who always leads us in His triumph in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma of the knowledge of Him in every place (2 Corinthians 2:14, emphasis mine). "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". The poor, improvident, or perhaps unfortunate, debtor was protected by wise laws against the greedy avaricious spirit of his merciless creditor. . Leviticus 25:39. And every one that was in distress - debt - discontented - It is very possible that these several disaffected and exceptionable characters might at first have supposed that David, unjustly persecuted, would be glad to avail himself of their assistance that he might revenge himself upon Saul, and so they in the mean time might profit by plunder, etc. But the original words by no means convey any such meaning as this. Proud member 4 sect. 1871-8. "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". They were a rough, lawless set of men, yet they could be kept in check by the influence of their beloved captain, David. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Commentary on 1 Samuel 2:27-36 (Read 1 Samuel 2:27-36) Those who allow their children in any evil way, and do not use their authority to restrain and punish them, in effect honour them more than God. These beneficent regulations of the great lawgiver had, under the capricious, faulty rule of King Saul, of course fallen into abeyance, and a terrible amount of misery, no doubt, was the consequence. 1999. every one that was in distress — (See on Judges 11:3). When his brothers and his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there. To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient, John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible, and there were with him about four hundred men, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible, Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments, George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged, Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, Commentary Critical and Explanatory - Unabridged, Kretzmann's Popular Commentary of the Bible, Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. About four hundred men — A band of outlaws, who, however, under David’s wise management, became a band of mighty heroes. Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. And yet, it was during this period that some of his Mighty Men adhered to his cause. 2 Samuel 22:1–51 David’s Song of Praise 22:1–51 pp — Ps 18:1–50 22 David sang d to the Lord the words of this song when the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul. Joseph Benson's Commentary. 1765. And every one that was in distress, &c.— See 1 Chronicles 12:8. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-samuel-22.html. Every one that was discontented, or, bitter in soul, i.e. You can read through all of 2-samuel 22 below.Click the verse number to read commentary, definitions, meanings, and notesfor that particular 2-samuel 22 verse. Then go to Christ and fill up the hollowness of your soul with Him. Thus all David's people were men of bitter spirit, extremely distressed and grieved for the loss of their wives and children, chap. 1 Samuel 22:2. embittered. 1 Samuel 22:2. thy little army is composed of distressed souls; for none will make thee their Captain whose spiritual circumstances are not desperate. (1 Samuel 22:2). He foresaw that while commanding such a company as this, he might, without injuring his king and former benefactor, be of the very greatest use to the people, and protect the southern frontiers of the kingdom—sadly exposed in these later years of King Saul—from the plundering incursions of the neighbouring nomadic tribes. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-samuel-22.html. Go to. "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". (Haydock). David might be ignorant of their debts; and it is most likely they concealed that, and pretended other causes of their coming to him, as the protection of the innocent, and the defence of his just rights, &c. 2. A catalogue of the bravest is given in 2 Samuel 23:8-39; 1 Chronicles 11:10-47. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. 1871-8. 1859. one = man. Copyright StatementThe New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. It is great trouble to a good man to find himself any way the cause of … Whatever they were before they came to David, we find that he succeeded in civilizing them, and making profitable to the state those who were before unprofitable. Not such ruffians and rakehells as Abimelech, [ 9:4] and of later time Mohammed, that grand impostor, got together to spoil and do mischief; but these came to David upon a better principle, and for a better purpose, viz., for his and their own just and necessary defence: and for their carriage, see what a testimony Nabal’s servants gave them, though that brute their master had basely reviled them. John Trapp Complete Commentary. BibliographyGill, John. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. BibliographyPoole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". ; distressed and uneasy in their minds, being pinched with want, or pressed with sore afflictions, which made them very disconsolate: these. 1. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-samuel-22.html. Every one that was in distress — אישׁ מצוק, ish matsok, the man straitened or oppressed. . 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Copyright StatementThese files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. David (says he), who was very observant of the law, had about him at first four hundred armed persons, and afterwards a somewhat greater number. The phrase here denotes those who were exasperated by Saul‘s tyranny. David did not send away these refugees, many of them distinguished and prominent Israelites, but organised them into a military force. 1 Samuel 22 New International Version (NIV) David at Adullam and Mizpah 22 David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. BibliographyHawker, Robert, D.D. The strength of the NIVAC series is its focus on contemporary applications, and Arnold is helpful here, but he is also concerned to deal with the original meaning of the text and does so very well. He became a captain over them; he did not justify nor maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but, on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them to the practice of all justice and honesty; as appears from 1 Samuel 25:15; and he only used them for his just defence. 1865-1868. But now, oh! Hebrew. App-14. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-samuel-22.html. Nor would they have continued with him so long, and abode with him in dreary forests, destitute of most of the conveniences and comforts of life; or have followed him whithersoever he was disposed to lead them. BibliographyTrapp, John. 1 Samuel chapter 22 summary starts out with David leaving the presence of the king of Gath and dwells in a cave, from whence he sent word to his family where he was and they came to … At the period of which the text speaks, David was leading the life of an outcast and an outlaw. 2 The name of his firstborn son was Joel, and the name of his second, Abijah; they were judges in Beersheba. (Compare 1 Samuel 30:6; 2 Samuel 17:8.) And every one that was discontented.] Arnold’s commentary on the books of Samuel in the NIVAC series is one of the better contributions. The Biblical Illustrator. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-22.html. In our own time the same spirit, as is too well known, is still abroad, and constitutes the bitterest reproach which the many enemies of the strange, deathless race can promulgate against a people evidently walled in by a Divine protection and a changeless eternal love. (See Excursus I. at the end of this Book.). This has been represented as a gang of ruffians, a parcel of banditti, who united themselves to David with the worst designs. 2 Samuel 7:1-17 (2017) [NEW SERIES] English Standard Version 2 Samuel 7:1-17 ESV Easy-Print Commentary 2 Samuel 7:1-17 ESV Easy-Print Large Print Commentary English Standard Version and Student Study Handout for To complete the picture of this First Book of Samuel, we must unite in one the scattered notices of this same period which occur in the Second Book of Samuel and in the Books of Kings and Chronicles. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-samuel-22.html. BibliographyClarke, Adam. Hebrew. Heb., Bitter of soul. David, being driven from Achish, returns into the land of Israel to be hunted by Saul. This is the truth which is contained in the common saying, that when people become disappointed with the world, it is the last resource to turn saint. In the Mosaic Law, most stringent regulations were laid down to correct and mitigate this ruling passion of avarice among the Jews. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain. The third class of people who came to David at the cave of Adullam were those who were discontented. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". And he became a captain over them.—It was evidently no undisciplined band, these outlaws of Adullam and the hold of Moab, of Hareth and Keilah, of Ziph and Engedi. CHAPTER 22 1 David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. nephesh. 22. App-13. David quickly organised the refugees, among whom, by degrees, many a man of mark and approved valour and ability were numbered. in an afflicted and calamitous condition. "ish. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-samuel-22.html. 2. These persons “in distress” were especially those who were persecuted by Saul and his men for their attachment to David. So useful and helpful to their neighbours did these soldiers become, that the servants of Nabal could not help acknowledging as much. His title to the crown was incontestable, so that he might justly make war, particularly in his own defence, and receive those who flocked to him to screen themselves from the persecution of Saul, and from their debtors, whom they would thus enable themselves to repay in time, by the plunder which they would take from the enemy. 2. discontented = bitter of soul. 22 And David spoke z to the L ord the words of this song on the day when the L ord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-samuel-22.html. . BibliographyBarnes, Albert. Now there were about four hundred men with him. drove men to seek a leader from whom they might hope for better things for the future . BibliographyWhedon, Daniel. And every one that was in distress.] (2) Every one that was in distress.—Ewald writes on this statement:—“The situation of the country, which was becoming more and more melancholy under Saul, . Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:20-23 (Read 1 Samuel 22:20-23) David greatly lamented the calamity. They wanted to be like other nations. In Proverbs, for instance, we have some conspicuous instances. Before commenting further on Hoffner’s commentary on 1&2 Samuel, let me share the purpose behind the Evangelical Exegetical Commentary series in the words of its creators. How long David remained in the cave of Adullam before his flight to Moab we are nowhere told. "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". Every one that was discontented — Hebrew, מר נפשׁ mar nephesh, the man bitter of soul, aggrieved in his mind, made uneasy and discontented, “probably,” says Dr. Dodd, “with Saul’s tyrannical government, and his implacable persecution of David, who, by this time, must have been well known to have been the intended successor of Saul.” It does not appear, from this description, that these were men of abandoned characters and profligate principles, as some have thought, who joined themselves to David purposely to cheat their creditors, and for the sake of the plunder they were in hopes of getting under him. About four hundred men were with him. 1905-1909. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". of 2-samuel 22:1 And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day that the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul: For what? (See such passages as Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:36; Deuteronomy 23:19.) And every one that was in distress, &c.— (1-2) Thanksgiving and praise. 1905. 1-samuel 22:1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him. Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". return to 'Jump List' Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible 1 Samuel 22:2. 1 Samuel 8:1–22 Israel Demands a King 8 When Samuel became old, r he made his sons judges over Israel. How could David receive and countenance such persons to the wrong of their creditors? Salem Media Group. And though their persons were with David, yet their lands and goods were liable to their creditors. In 1 Samuel 15:22 Samuel said that it is better to obey God than to *sacrifice to him. The last thing we note about the miserable men who came for refuge to David is that they were taught by him to live good lives. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-samuel-22.html. BibliographyBenson, Joseph. This is not the temper or behaviour of men of profligate principles. The story of Samuel’s call is full of important details that are pregnant with meaning, right from the opening verses which set the stage (verses 1-3). 1 Samuel 22:2 And everyone [that was] in distress In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in their … When his brothers and the rest of his family heard about it, they came down to him there. 22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive (1 Corinthians 15:22, emphasis mine). Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented gathered to him; and he became captain over them. Cannot we see in David collecting around him all who were in distress, in debt, or for any reason discontented, a foreshadow of the Friend of publicans and sinners, of Him who said, “Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.” Again a man’s religion may be concealed in his heart, and may not do the good it ought to do as an example till distress come upon him and cause it to be seen in all its power. So, too, there is a “Divine discontent” which brings people to Christ. 1870. 2 a He said, b “The L ord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". Heb., That had a creditor or an oppressor, extortioner, usurer, who cruelly handled him. 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 1 Kings 2 Kings 31 1-4 5-10 11-20 21-24 1-11 12-22 1-17 18-25 1Chr 10 1 Chr 11-19 1 Chr 20-29 2 Chronicles 1-9 2 Chronicles 10-20 2 Chronicles 21-36 Legend: B.C. BibliographyExell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "1 Samuel 22:2". 1 David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. “ The Evangelical Exegetical Commentary is a brand new, 44-volume commentary series which incorporates the latest critical biblical scholarship and is written from a distinctly evangelical perspective. Probably poor debtors, whom their creditors were obliged to spare, Exodus 22:25. These cookies are strictly necessary to provide you with services available BibliographyHaydock, George Leo. "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". It is only David who finally brings the ark to Zion, to the place which Jehovah had chosen to set His name there (2 Samuel 6 , compare Deuteronomy 12:5 ; Psalms 132) and in which place Solomon was going to build the temple in a later day (1 King 6-8). "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". In many a true believer piety is like a drum, which nobody hears of unless it be beaten. BibliographyEllicott, Charles John. Kingdom and Chaos David and His Misfits March 17, 2019 1 Samuel 22:1-2 NIV David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. Discontented — Dissatisfied with the government of Saul. gathered themselves unto him; to help him, or rather to be helped by him; hoping in time things would take a favourable turn with him, and he should be advanced to the throne, and so their circumstances would be mended thereby: and he became a captain over them; they enlisted themselves in his service, and he took the command of them; he might not know the circumstances of those in debt, nor of any of them thoroughly, nor their views in joining him; however he meant not to shelter them from paying their just debts if able, nor to encourage them in disloyalty to their king, only to make use of them for his own preservation for the present. and became their leader. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". [John 9:35] And in the civil law we find provision made for such as were cast out and exposed to the wide world; some hospitals to entertain them, some liberties to comfort and compensate their troubles. 1874-1909. Used by Permission. Every one that was in distress, through want, or oppression, or otherwise. 7 parag. 1 Samuel 22:2 New International Version (NIV) 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. Along with members of his family, David's supporters at this time were, in a word, every outlaw in the kingdom. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-samuel-22.html. "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". Ver. Ver. Being expelled from Israel and Philistia, nothing remained for him to do but to gather around him a band of equally unfortunate men and defend himself with his sword. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 22:2". David maintained the strictest discipline, and withheld his men from making any disturbance, always manifesting the greatest respect for the person of the king. I. David sets up his standard in the cave of Adullam, entertains his relations (v. 1), enlists soldiers (v. 2), but removes his aged parents to a more quiet settlement (v. 3, v. 4), and has the prophet Gad for his counsellor (v. 5). Are you dissatisfied? And everyone that was in distress, and everyone that was in debt, and everyone that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him. It must be observed that the Jews frequently used their debtors with great severity, (see Nehemiah 5:5,) taking forcible possession of their lands and vineyards, and bringing their children into bondage. BibliographyJamieson, Robert, D.D. And then he neither assaulted any place with them, nor sought for an occasion to fight, but avoided it by seeking for secret and secure places of retreat, sometimes in the deserts, sometimes, in foreign nations, always taking care not to hurt his countrymen, and never allowing his men to make incursions upon any but the enemies of Israel. The מצוק אישׁ ish matzok, is the man straitened or oppressed; the נשׁא לו אשׁר אישׁ ish asher lo noshe, is the man that hath a creditor, an exacting, cruel creditor; the Jews frequently using their debtors with great severity, Nehemiah 5:5 taking away their lands and vineyards, and bringing into bondage their sons and daughters: and finally, the נפשׁ מר אישׁ ish mar nepesh, is the man bitter of soul, one aggrieved in his mind, or uneasy and discontented; probably, with Saul's tyrannical government, and his implacable persecution of David, who, by this time, must have been well known to have been the intended successor of Saul. 2 Samuel 22:1 "And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day [that] the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul:" The linguistic features of the psalm attest to its antiquity.